So you want to consistently win Moral Conflict and always be a step in front of your friends? To be sure, who does not enjoy winning battles, amassing wealth and feeling like being on top of the world? With Moral Conflict, you will quickly realize the great skills needed to win the game. Often victories are given to players who have honed their competencies to outwit others. These skilled players use multiple dimensions in both overt and subtle combinations.

This resource guide provides you with tools and inspiration for developing skills to design winning strategies by using multiple dimensions. It is our hope that these skills will help you to win not just in Moral Conflict games but also in real life situations.

Let’s get started!!

“Get wisdom, get understanding; do not forget my words or swerve from them. Do not forsake wisdom, and she will protect you; love her, and she will watch over you. Wisdom is supreme; therefore get wisdom. Though it cost you all you have, get understanding. Esteem her, and she will exalt you, embrace her, and she will set a garland on your head and present you with a crown of splendour.”    Proverbs 4: 5 – 9

The lessons from mankind’s largest and most terrible conflict in the Second World War are clearly seen because this was one of the most extreme experiences to date. I would like to start you off on a road of discovery and learning, showing how history can come alive, be fun, practical and even provide answers to our everyday problems.  Moral Conflict players have the security of trying out and applying what is learnt in an actual simulation of the mid-20th Century world. The challenge to be ahead of their friends, in play,  can provide additional motivation to master history’s lessons.

The five dimensions represent the five central themes which have dominated thinking and inflamed human passions from ancient times right through to the present day.

The military dimension represents force and success through strength in arms. For many, this is seen as the strongest dimension and the first approach to solve a problem. History and the Moral Conflict experience, however, teach a different lesson.

The economic dimension represents resources and materialism, or wealth, money and all that it can buy. In war, military strength is dependent on the economic means to provide the arms and resources such as food, fuel and materials to develop and sustain military strength. Economic interests become the goal of military strategy and subordinate it to the more powerful economic dimension.

The struggle for material success is elusive and no nation or person can manage it on his own. Today’s incredible wealth could only be built on a worldwide web of relationships, trade and co-operation between the peoples of the world. The diplomatic dimension represents co-operation, only possible through strong interpersonal relations. Without these, economic crisis is inevitable. The diplomatic dimension is stronger than the economic dimension.

In the war, the German and Japanese decisions to pursue the military path rather than dependence on others is clearly seen to have failed. Their post-war economic miracles are likewise striking proof that the diplomatic dimension is more effective than the military way.

Technology represents innovation, science and learning. This offers the possibility of managing without others and reliance on revolutionary new strengths, tools and machines. It finally promises to deliver paradise on earth. Could this be the most powerful dimension?

Today we stand at the summit of human knowledge and science. Although we have such wonders as the nuclear power, cheap cars, computers, internet and space travel, we have not found paradise: instead we feel that something is missing.

Technology has enabled a personal independence, while relationships and the very world we live in are destroyed. Couples split with great animosity and wonder why as they prepare to repeat it all over again. The moral standards which have guided generations are disintegrating, while children, teenagers, adults and parents today spend much of their time online, unable to relate to each other and cope with the stress and challenges of living in the 21st century.

The moral conflict is a struggle between good and evil that dominates everything. Each one of us struggles to control these forces within us, and whether to use the other dimensions for good or evil. The outcome of using the dimensions depends on this. This was the greatest moral conflict in history, tearing apart families, friends and neighbours and nearly destroying us all. Here we can see clearly that moral conflict is the most important dimension and that nobody really seems to be able to master it. The ideals of leaders of the 20th century such as Lenin or Hitler, just like the teachings of the generations before, have proved to be false.

The common world view of each dimension is described and then the reality is shown. What happens when both sides use the same dimension to engage in their conflict? Then the effects the real dimension has on the others is explained, as well as the effects of the others on this dimension. With this knowledge, the skills and strategy to master this dimension become clear. Finally, their application in Moral Conflict games and in real life is demonstrated. Shayla and Martin at school are provided as a simple, entertaining and practical example that I hope everybody can relate to.

The lessons revealed by the five dimensions in the Moral Conflict, challenge our thoughts, dreams and beliefs. Moral Conflict shows how history is made collectively by nations, in turn are made up of individuals like each one of us. That is why the Moral Conflict Experience can offer hope and direction, leading us today to a real life.

The expansion games will focus more on the individual and show how the course of action of a few men changed history and reality.

“War therefore is an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfil our will”. “On war” Carl von Clausewitz


“The race is not to the swift or the battle to the strong, nor does food come to the wise or wealth to the brilliant or favour to the learned; but time and chance happen to them all.” Ecclesiastes 9: 11

Military war (force or strength): open conflict between two or more parties, nations or states. On a personal scale it is a matter of life and death.

Common world view on force

“To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert, and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.” “The Pillar of a Man’s Heart”, Stu Weber

The use of force to attack an opponent is often one of man’s first solutions for coping with a conflict. An inability to easily change the opponent’s ideas or understand his point of view results in a duel of force. This is  true between nations, neighbours and even friends and families.  It is thought to be the most effective, or at least the quickest method  to get what you want.

Victory belongs to those with larger numbers. It is always better to attack quickly whenever possible, and any retreat is a sign of weakness. Strength should always be visible and any sign of weakness is to be avoided or hidden. It is assumed that this is the real sign of strength and the strongest dimension.

As the Second World War began, the German army was certainly the strongest in the world and for two years all others bowed to its will. The Nazis gave military power priority over every other aspect of life in Germany. Hitler proudly boasted that he did not know the word retreat.

How then were the Germans defeated?


Most of us only know how to play either offensively or defensively. Either we go into attack mode, charging our targets in a desperate push to get what we want, or we try frantically to avoid conflict, and if it is forced on us, to ward of our enemies as best as we can.

Neither approach works when it excludes the other.  When making offense our rule,  we create enemies and risk acting rashly and losing control of our behaviour.  Similarly, constant defensiveness can back us into a corner and render us powerless to act.

Instead, consider a third option:  the Napoleonic way.  At times you seem vulnerable and defensive, getting your opponents to disregard you as a threat, to lower their guard. When the moment is right and you sense an opening, you switch to the attack.  Make your aggression controlled and your weakness a ploy to disguise your intentions. In a dangerous moment, when those around you see only doom and the need to retreat, that is when you smell an opportunity.  By playing weak you can seduce you aggressive enemies to come at you full throttle. Then catch them off guard by switching to the offensive when they least expect it. Mixing offense and defense in this fluid fashion, you will stay one step ahead of your inflexible opponents.  The best blows are the ones they never see coming.

“The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene

Historical Reference

This is exactly what the Russians did to the Germans at Stalingrad. This was the decisive turning point of the military war, leading to retreat all the way back to Germany and ultimately total defeat.

The Germans were first thrown back in the winter before Moscow and then the following year at Stalingrad after the Russians waited patiently for the Germans to exhaust themselves on their defenses, before they launched a counter attack.  Hitler’s refusal to retreat from Stalingrad resulted in a catastrophe which the German army never recovered from, and it led to the destruction of German’s best formations. The Germans were beaten at their own game through their lack of flexibility and patience. Their appetite for conquest led them blindly and even further into the trap.

There are many battles where smaller numbers have beaten larger numbers.

What is most important is the concentration of forces at the critical point of the front.  If the enemy perceives you as weak, a surprise counter-attack can be even more effective.  These attacking forces were often built up in great secrecy behind the lines.

The advantage of surprise can bring greatly enhance the chances of success. This was repeatedly demonstrated by the Germans at the start of the war and by the Japanese in their attack on the Americans at Pearl Harbour.

Affect of force on itself

“King Pyrrhus had now scaled the heights, yet he felt only gloom and foreboding. His losses had been terrible, the ranks of the generals he depended on were decimated and he himself had been badly wounded. .. When congratulated on his victory at Asculum he replied, “If we defeat the Romans in one more battle we will be ruined.”   “The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene

A Pyrrhic victory shows the extreme effect of military war on itself. Your goal in war is not simply to amass a huge army and a stockpile of weapons to increase your firepower and simply blast your enemy away. That is wasteful, expensive and takes time to build up. Going at your enemies blow by blow, strength for strength is a similar folly. Do you keep both sides losses next to the battle board and constantly assess how your side is really doing?

Skills, character and strategy

“A soldier is more than a number of troops, more than a means to an end, more than one member of a division, more than a cog in a wheel and more than collateral damage. soldiers are fellow humans with hearts and spirits, bound in love, intertwined with the hearts and spirits of family and friends.” “Within a Purple Heart” Sharon Farchione-Ross

Fear of death and courage

“Fear will cost him his destiny”. If you want to walk on water you’ve got to get out of the Boat” John Ortberg

War is all about death and overcoming the fear of this. About finding the courage to leave the security of a defensive position and risking a move forwards into the unknown. Sartre stated that death is not threatening as long as we view it from a third-person perspective.

The positive side is the hope that the risk will finally bring a better life – for others, for future generations or even for oneself. The classic on war “The Art of War” by Sun Tzu summarizes what a military leader needs to become.


“A general must see alone and know alone, meaning that he must see what others do not see and know what others do not know. Seeing what others do not see is called brilliance, knowing what others do not know is called genius. Brilliant geniuses win first, meaning that they defend in such a way to be unassailable and attack in such a way to be irresistible.”

“What everyone knows is what has already happened or become obvious. What the individual knows is what has not taken shape, what has not occurred. Everyone says victory in battle is good but if you see and notice the hidden so as to seize victory where there is no form this is really good.” “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

When you know both yourself and others you are never in danger, when you know yourself but not others you have a half chance of winning, and when you know neither yourself nor others you are in danger in every battle.

Remember the effect of the seasons on a battle in monsoon or tundra territories, the extra non combat losses which can be higher than the military losses. You must know how quickly both sides can replace battle losses and assess the opponents and your own will and ability to sustain a war of attrition. and don’t be blinded into thinking in only one dimension. Can you win a new ally or will a new technology soon affect the strength of the forces? If you cannot win militarily would it be best to use your wealth to buy of the enemy and win a favourable peace? If you want some inspiration look at the chapter on the interdependence of all 5 dimensions on page XX.

Heart and mind

“So unless your heart is wide open and your mind is orderly, you cannot be expected to be able to adapt responsively without limit, dealing with events unerringly, facing great and unexpected, difficulties without upset; calmly handling everything without confusion.”
“The Art of War” Sun Tzu

It is not possible to plan every move. In each battle it is possible to make important decisions such as holding out or retreat. Each has its virtues and a great military leader will perceive what the changing situation requires. Keep a close eye on the battle losses on both sides. If you have a large country with many territories each having little production then be open too trade space for time. If your territory under attack is vitally important keep fighting but remember it may be best to retreat and counter attack on your turn with more reinforcements. Does this describe your handling of the battles?


It is the unemotional, reserved, calm, detached warrior who wins, not the hothead seeking vengeance and not the ambitious seeker of fortune. “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

A battle can be lost through bad luck or a surprise attack can overwhelm you and your pride and emotions are hit. If you keep your head in chaos that follows you will be able to turn the situation to your advantage. As the enemy drives deeply into your territory, he may disperse his forces and his reinforcements will take longer to be brought to the front. When did you last search for the right moment to take advantage of this?


A military operation involves deception. Even though you are competent, appear incompetent. Though effective, appear ineffective. “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

Deception allows you to channel your opponent’s forces where you chose. Split your forces and encourage an opponent to attack, then regroup and throw him back when he has rashly committed his forces. How often are you patient and when was has it last rewarded you with victory?


Patience is one of the most important but underrated virtues both in war and everyday life. In military war, patience is needed to build up sufficient force before battle commences. Wait for the best moment to counter-attack, when the enemy is completely exhausted.

Application of force in a Moral Conflict game

“To win without fighting is best” “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

The territories are classed as a nation’s home territories or enemy territory. The production capabilities and the occupation forces necessary to control the territory depend on this. When a territory changes hands after a battle, a destruction marker is always placed there to represent the destruction. Repairs must be carried out before production can continue. Are you taking these factors into planning your military goals?


“Skilfull use of terrain is the most effective means toward weakening the effect of enemy fire” World War II Infantry Tactics, Company and Battalion, Osprey Publishing

The territories on a Moral Conflict game represent the terrain found on our planet. This affects all armed forces involved in battles on a territory in different ways. The flat plains and deserts offer little cover for land units reducing their defense values while aircraft are unaffected and at an advantage. The cover in forests gives land units a better defense value and is an advantage against aircraft. Mountains will increase your army’s defense values but the attacker does not profit from this. Forest and mountains slow armoured groups down to only one move a turn. Are you constantly using terrain to your advantage? It comes with no extra costs.


“If your soldiers, strength, strategy and courage are all less than that of the opponent, then you should retreat and watch for an opening.”

Before each offensive it is a possible to decide to retreat. The defender should always wisely weigh up the likely losses on both sides in the next offensive and the importance of keeping the territory in his overall strategy, before making a decision whether to continue a battle or retreat. How often do you chose the retreat option? Should learn to use this more effectively?


“Those whose strength is insufficient should defend, those whose strength is super abundant can attack. This means that we will not do battle unless we are certain of complete victory, we will not fight unless we are sure it is safe.” “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

To attack and over commit is probably the biggest mistake that a general can make. Do you know when to attack and when to defend? Do you generally attack and only occasionally defend? Are you missing the opportunities of defence?


“Good warriors get others to come to them and do not go to others.” “The Art of War” Sun Tzu

Land units in defence are able to take better use of the available cover and are stronger than the attacking land units. Unless the attacker has more land units than the defender or sufficient air and naval support he can expect higher losses and defeat. Why don’t you lure an opponent into a rash attack by presenting him with a weaker territory which is still strong enough to make him take unacceptable losses. Has he considered the defense advantage as well as you, did he adequately consider any terrain and season affects?

Concentration and numbers

Generally the strongest and largest force will win therefore keeping your forces concentrated together will greatly reduce losses and increase the chances of success. Do you pick off the enemy’s weak forces spread out before you or rush for a quick head on battle with his strongest concentrations?


War is the province of uncertainty, three – fourths of those things upon which action in war must be calculated are hidden more or less in the clouds of great uncertainty. Here, then above all a fine and penetrating mind is called for, to search out the truth by the tact of judgement.” “On War” Carl von Clausewitz

The dice used in each battle represent this uncertainty. An astute general will be able to assess the probability of a desired outcome or danger; at the same time understanding the risk that this may not happen.

To be successful in military combat, a player must understand the management of space, through retreat, defence and attack, the exploitation of natural conditions like terrain, the use of numbers, always taking the risks and losses into account, displaying the virtue of patience.

Recommended literature

Plans are established by seeking advice; so if you wage war, obtain guidance. Proverbs 20: 18

The first three books are very strong guidance on these themes, both vital skills for winning military wars and Moral Conflict. The book on Infantry Tactics gives a detailed understanding of the battles represented in Moral Conflict. These and the others listed below are great books on war for military historians. Robert Greene’s book on war also gives insight into winning the subtle social battles of everyday life.

  • The Art of War – Sun Tzu
  • World War II Infantry Tactics, Company and Battalion – Osprey Publishing
  • The 33 Strategies of War – Robert Greene
  • Stalingrad – Anthony Beevor
  • History of the Second World War – B. H. Liddell Hart
  • Absolute War – Chris Bellamy
  • The Third Reich at War – Richard J. Evans
  • On War – Carl von Clausewitz
  • Europe at War – Norman Davies


The economic systems of capitalism and communism represented the two extremes of economic ideals in the middle of the 20th century. In the 21st century, communism finds few followers and capitalism’s humanity is questioned. Both systems displayed an inability to address people’s deepest beliefs, intellect and hearts. The top-down approach left us with only partial success.


“Naked a man comes and naked he goes.” Ecclesiastes 5:15

Economic: concerning or affecting production and consumption of material goods and services.

Common world view on materialism

“To the man who pleases him, God gives wisdom, knowledge and happiness but to the sinner he gives the task of gathering and storing up wealth to hand it over to the one who pleases God.“ Ecclesiastes 2:26

The power of this dimension over people as well as over the other dimensions is enormous. In fact it is the biggest source of fascination in our 21st century consumer society. Many people generally live as if more were always better. They use their friends and influence to make money, of which they try to keep as much as possible for themselves.

Others seeing this try to escape consumerism, attempting to live with as little as possible and condemning materialism, economic success and all that money can buy. They believe that “money is the root of all evil”.


“For the love of money is the root of all evil.” 1st Timothy 6:10

It is not money or material goods which are in themselves innocent that is wrong, it is how we use them and ultimately whether for good or evil, finally affecting our hearts.

Today we have wealth that would have been unimaginable only a few generations ago. The worldwide communication and transport system, medical treatments, computers and many more things today’s prosperity has given us are truly amazing. Would the critics of materialism wish to go without all this? Surely economic success is not always bad. It is the extremes of wealth and poverty that seem to be the problem.

Wealth is good and made for the consumer. The problem is when the heart hangs onto money and its power to buy above all else. It is well known that those with too little are doomed to suffer.

The fact that those with too much suffer is not as easy to perceive. When wealth is traded or shared, those participating are encouraged to learn how to get on better with each other. One person’s excess is the other’s need and the other way round. Those with too much are often blind to the cost in terms of fulfilment in life and hidden lifestyle costs.

Skills, character and strategy

“Whoever loves money never has enough.””The Bible” Ecclesiastes 5:10

A fulfilment curve demonstrates the path to mastering materialism. This shows the relationship between the experience of fulfilment and the amount of money we spend on possessions. When we are poor or young, every new acquisition adds to fulfilment. As we consume and even become accustomed to luxury, the thrill is harder to secure and wears off more quickly. We do not realise that the more we buy, the more we worry and the more time we spend earning, buying, cleaning, repairing and storing the clutter that it all becomes.

Clutter is your personal excess which you don’t need. You have more than enough and clutter actually impacts negatively on your self-fulfilment.

We have mastered materialism when we learn to perceive the optimum amount: and this simply is “enough”. Anything less brings less fulfilment and anything more brings less fulfilment as well. We are finally free and are able to let go of things and make room for time to really live.

The amount may vary for each individual, but this logical assessment of things may help you to develop the courage needed to let go. You can sell or give away your excess and acquire good will or time to enjoy what is really important in your life.

What have you always wanted to do and have never found the time? Do you believe these ideas could be true? Why not try them out in the game and everyday life?

Application of economics in a Moral Conflict game

The German army was notorious for its stubborn inability to release from conscription, men whose scientific or managerial skills were in desperate need in on the civilian front.

“Why the Allies won” Richard Overy

The PCs and special resources represent a different force, economic strength. If military power is the wood to start the fire, economic strength is the fuel and wind to keep the fire going. Throughout the war, the Axis nations suffered from shortages of oil, iron ore and not having enough materials. They could have bought or traded for these resources with their excess in industry and technology. The post-war economic success of Germany, Japan and Italy shows that this is the best way.

Production PCs

These represent the production capacity of industry and the population which can be used to buy armed forces or economically to provide money (gold) or build new factories (plus PCs) which allow you to produce even more PCs in the next turns. Victory is strongly influenced by maximising your nations PC total. This can be done by capturing more territories with more PCs and also oppressing the enemy occupied territories to squeeze more PCs out of them or investing in economic technologies like standardisation which rationalises your production and gives higher PC production.

Victory points can be won by building more new production, called plus PCs than the opponents.

Special Resources

Special resources can be secured by trade or occupying the territories if necessary by force that produce them. Oil is the fuel for industry, transport and mobile warfare. Both the Germans and the Japanese had great shortages, forcing them to limit their use of ships and armour and therefore bringing the end of the war nearer. Their pilots’ first experience in a plane was on the day of combat: there was not enough fuel for training flights so they were easily shot down by an enemy with the oil to train experienced pilots.

Iron ore is the most important material in steel. Steel is essential for the manufacture of all weapons, particularly armour. Without sufficient steel, it was not possible to produce heavily armoured tanks. Ships consume great quantities of steel. The Japanese had to stop production of ships well before the end of the war because of the lack of steel.

Alternatively if you have massive stockpiles of resources that you cannot use, you still have opportunities which you have not taken. These could be traded or given as a gift to other nations. These are powerful tools in diplomacy and negotiation.

Many currencies at this time were linked to the gold standard. The availability of gold is critical to acquire resources by trade and for use in diplomacy. If industry is used for economic means instead of military force, gold can be produced which counts as victory points to win the game. A player needs to decide whether the cost of war is less than the economic means to win victory points.

In the end we all dream of our pile of gold and the peace to enjoy it. Profitable trade and avoidance of long destructive wars are key to building up production and wealth. Economic crisis shows players how much they need each other. Establishing a monopoly in one resource or depriving an enemy of a critical resource enables success at lower cost. The players that master this dimension find an alternative to success based only on military strength and the costly battles it involves to acquire devastated territory.

The first two books below describe how not to master the economic crisis through Germany’s example. The third book describes how to master the economic crisis through the Allies’ example. “Your Money or Your Life” helps you get your own materialism under control and lead the life you really wanted. You learn not to have too little and not to have too much but just enough. It gives a modern day personal perspective on the cost of wealth in terms of lifestyle and helps you adapt your thinking and decisions on a daily basis.

  • Hitler’s Empire – Mark Mazower
  • The Third Reich in Power – Richard J. Evans
  • How the Allies Won – Richard Overy


“Diplomacy’s chief purpose is to enable states to secure the objectives of their foreign policy without resorting to force. Together with the balance of power, which it both reflects and reinforces, diplomacy is the most important institution of our society of states.”
“Diplomacy, Theory & Practice,” G.R. Berridge


Diplomacy is the conduct of relations of one state with another by peaceful means. It is also tact, skill or cunning in dealing with people and having many good interpersonal relationships.

Common worldview on diplomacy

“Although German allies and sympathisers – Italy, Spain, Hungary, Slovakia – sent troops to help fight the Bolshevik threat, their treatment at German hands was arrogant and discriminatory. Germany was feared and hated by most of Europe.”
“Why the Allies Won” Richard Overy

I don’t need them, they are no good. I can do it better on my own.

The Germans treated their allies and potential allies according to this view. The result at the end of the war was that all their allies had changed sides and were fighting against Germany and many potential allies joined the war against Germany. This is one of the clearest demonstrations of folly.


“The size of your dream should determine the size of your team.”
“The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork” John C. Maxwell

The reality is that the partners you consider most unworthy are usually so different and therefore most worthy. Their weaknesses measured by your yardstick may disqualify them in your mind, blinding you to their strengths by their own yardstick – which you don’t even see. It is precisely because they are so different they can contribute so many new things to your team.

As the goal becomes more and more challenging, it proves impossible to achieve without a larger and larger team.

Skills, character and strategy

Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others. “Philippians 2: 4.”

Make friends, partners and allies wherever you go. If you concentrate on the relationship and not on profit, miracles will happen. If you can even learn to love, then almost nothing will be impossible.

Diplomacy in a Moral Conflict game

If neutral nations in Iberia or Turkey and others can be won by the skilful use of all the dimensions and the luck of a dice roll, victory points and military, economic strength are rapidly acquired. Through this victory becomes easier but even more decisive is real verbal diplomacy.

The diplomatic pressure challenges players to use negotiation, persuasion, team work and co-operation to maximise their opportunity to win the game.

The threat of military force can work to achieve the solution you are looking for. Understanding the others interests and creatively trying to reach a solution which helps not just yourself but also the other party is another way to win a diplomatic victory. Few will have the skills necessary to master this dimension without putting the recommended literature into practice.

In the diplomacy phase it is possible to decide new ways of co-operation between allies, friendly nations and even enemies. If co-operation cannot be achieved, the decision can be made to resort to military force. The possibilities are limited only by your creativity and willingness to co-operate with each other.

The inability to take joint decisions that were mutually beneficial and jointly acceptable was a great weakness of the Axis alliance.

In the world famous book “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People”, Stephen Covey recommends a win/win approach to successful negotiation. Win/win means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial, mutually satisfying and based on the idea that there is plenty for everybody. The focus with close co-operation is how to make the cake to be shared even bigger. Most people work on the assumption that one side will win in a negotiation and one will lose. Without trust, the best we can do is compromise, and without trust we lack the credibility for open, mutual learning and communication and real creativity.

Here are two examples which illustrate both possibilities.

  • Win/LoseSolution: Germany could use military force to threaten the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union is to withdraw, giving the Baltic States, Belorussia, Karelia and the Ukraine to Germany. Oil is to be supplied free of charge to Germany each round.Fotolia_7150821_LbarbarossAdvantage to the Axis: Productive territory is received immediately without any war damage, which includes much needed iron ore. Oil supply problems are solved in the short term.Advantage to the Soviet Union: Peace and time to strengthen the Soviet Union.Long-term result: The Soviet Union will probably resent the considerable loss of territory and a trade agreement, both of which are more favourable to Germany. It is also uncertain whether the Soviet Union would agree to such a proposal. At some time later a war to redress the situation is likely and the Soviet Union would join the Allied alliance.
  • Win/WinSolution: The Soviet Union could offer to ship more oil and iron ore supplies to Germany and Japan. The Soviet Union could purchase extra oil in Iran and ship it through the Soviet Union to Germany or Japan. Here is it could be sold at a profit. At the start of the game it is impossible for Germany to get this oil without help.The Soviet Union’s armed forces on their frontline in Eastern and Western Soviet Union, as well as the Japanese armed units on Manchuria, can be reduced to a mutually acceptable level and also the German forces on Finland and East Balkans can be withdrawn. This will give more security and free forces for all three powers to make military gains elsewhere.


    Advantages to the Axis: Germany could use the time to win over Spain, Portugal, Turkey and Iran through diplomacy and win a major victory over their existing enemy, the Empires. Japanese purchase of oil and iron ore from the Soviet Union gives it time and a better negotiating position with the USA and Empires.

    Advantages to the Soviet Union: The Soviet Union could have a longer period of peace at the beginning of the game to prepare for war. The gold received could be used to build new plus IP in areas away from the western borders and instead of expecting a long war with the Axis alliance and occupation, it can actually search for routes to territorial expansion.

    Long-term result: The trust built up could lead to further co-operation of this nature possibly drawing the Soviet Union into the Axis alliance.

    This is a simple illustration of the techniques in the Harvard Negotiation Project’s book “Getting to Yes”.

    The new opportunities for all sorts of negotiation and mutual co-operation in the advanced game are immense and if you can master the diplomatic dimension, it will be decisive. What do you think about the use of negoitiation and diplomacy? Do you think that you can be more successful by using some of the above examples. What is stopping you trying more creative interaction with others? What skills do you need to learn?

    However the biggest problem may seem to be the other players.

    Recommended literature

    “The tongue has the power of life and death and those who love it will eat its fruit.” Proverbs 18:21

    The Harvard Negotiation Project’s second book “Getting Past No” by William Ury will help you deal with tough times, tough people and tough negotiations. You do not have to get mad or get even. Instead you get what you want!

    The player that studies and practices the techniques in the excellent literature on negotiation and team work can achieve a level of skill which few great diplomats or business leaders possess. An understanding of the other side’s perspective is difficult for us all and few really try. When you master this, many ways to success will present themselves in the game and you eyes will be opened to the opportunities in your relationships in the real world.

    Why not try these out and find out whether they really deliver what is promised?

    • Getting to Yes – Roger Fisher/William Ury
    • The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork – John C. Maxwell
    • The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People – Stephen R. Covey
    • Getting Past No – William Ury


“When you have less, you are naturally more inventive. Creativity gives you an edge over enemies dependent on technology; you will learn more, be more adaptable, and you will out smart them. Unable to waste your limited resources, you will use them well. Time will be your ally.”
“The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene


Technology: the practical application of knowledge and skills available to any person or society.

Common worldview on technology

In the last few centuries in particular, technology has become one of mankind’s greatest hopes. The idea is that new technology is better and the technologically backward will not win either in war or in life. Others resist change and feel threatened by the uncertainty it brings.


“In 1941 responsibility both for the production and development of aircraft in Germany lay with Colonel – General Ernst Uder. It was a post for which he was utterly unsuited. He was appointed in 1935 at Hitler’s suggestion…. His only contribution to air force development was to insist that all bomber aircraft, even large four – engined craft, should have a dive-bombing capability, a requirement that set German bomber development years behind that of the Allies ” “Why the Allies Won” Richard Overy

The reality is that to master this dimension is very complicated and requires great wisdom and knowledge of many different areas of expertise. This is only possible when large groups of experts from different fields are brought together. The German example illustrates some of the dangers. Technological development and application is risky and some of the consequences of new innovations may only really be appreciated years after their introduction. Unexpected disadvantages can appear and production costs can escalate. An innovation may not make economic sense at the beginning in particular.


At the start of the war the Allies had developed few new weapon technologies but were already strong in manufacturing techniques which were now turned to the production of immense amounts of relatively simple but effective weapons.

Germany had started to improve its weaponry but the war had begun earlier than planned and these developments saw action too late to decisively influence the war. The Axis weakness in manufacturing technologies was decisive in the critical years of 1941 and 1942 and they were simply out-produced by their enemies. Their attempts to make up for these deficits came too late. Unable to win a war with the weapons of the 1940s, Germany dreamed of winning the war with the wonder weapons of the 1950s. Jet aircraft, rockets and advanced submarines came too late and in too small numbers to be decisive. This further impacted on production problems and the vast resources invested here in this area came at the expense of large-volume production of existing weapons.

The Soviet Union’s rise to power was based on highly standardised production coupled with the early introduction of highly effective but simple technologies, such as the sloped armour T34 medium tanks, which were then produced in very large quantities.


“Weapons of World War II” by Alexander Lüdeke, was indispensible for developing this game and gives a player a sound overview of the military use of technology. Everybody wants to know how to win and Richard Overy’s book reveals the secret to success, not only in the technology race (chapters 6 & 7) but also in terms of the military war and the struggle for production in the economic crisis.

Historical Reference

Radar Technology

A radar using wavelengths of 1.7 metres was developed, capable of detecting a surfaced submarine at 5 miles. The radar allowed aircraft to find submarines by day or night. German scientists rapidly developed Metox, a receiver set, which gave warning of aircraft approaching using the 1.7 metre frequency. When the Allies developed a radar set built on 10 centimetres, it proved able to detect even a submarine periscope.

Technology for the Air War

During the war most nations developed more powerfully armed aircraft with a longer range. The Germans were the first to introduce the revolutionary jet aircraft whose manoeuvrability and speed totally outclassed all conventional aircraft. With the long range rules these aircraft can shoot a number of conventional aircraft down in one turn greatly magnifying their strength.

Tactical rocketry

Germany was the leading nation as far as the use of rocket technology was concerned. Rocket artillery barrages and the Panzerfaust hand-held infantry anti-tank weapons added cheap fire power to their armies.

The Rheintochter was the first two-stage anti-aircraft rocket. This technology and the air-to-air missiles, if produced earlier, could have drastically changed the air battle over Germany.

The AT of armies and AA of aircraft and strategic anti aircraft units is increased through these technologies.

Application of technology in a moral conflict game

“The sin God rebukes is not trying and failing, but failing to try. Trying, failing and trying again is called learning. Failing to try will have no good result; evil will triumph.” “Boundaries” Henry Cloud and John Townsend

Application technology development in a moral conflict is carried out by rolling a die for the application cost. This represents the trial and error process of scientific progress. A player can develop weapon technologies that have a pure military application or manufacturing technologies that can be applied during both war and peace.

The Second World War, unlike the First World War, was a war of movement achieved by the use of aircraft and armoured vehicles. Here is some historical background and explanation of the technologies which can be developed in the various Moral Conflict games. The simpler games do not have all these options.

Technology for the land war

Armies were strengthened with heavy artillery, anti- aircraft guns and anti tank guns to fight these weapons. You should develop the latter two as soon as possible as armies were very vulnerable to air and armoured group attack. As a consequence, the armoured forces were equipped with more massive armour and more powerful guns in the course of the war. When fighting weaker enemy armoured groups, it was possible to destroy large numbers of enemy forces before they came within range to fire back. The long range fire rules allow you this advantage.

Radar Technology

Radar allowed the exact pinpointing of enemy armed forces and revolutionized the use of aircraft, naval forces and the targeting of guns. Night strategic bombers and aircraft attacking submarines needed radar like technologies, for target finding and navigation. Aircraft can defend before an enemy has done strategic bombing to avoid damage to a territory’s PCs. All armed forces have better attack values with radar against aircraft and sea forces. This is a relatively inexpensive way to increase you military effectiveness and should be a priority.

Technology for the land war

The development of the jet engine revolutionises air combat and allows these new aircraft to use the long range fire advantage to quickly destroy more than one conventional air unit in a turn.

Manufacturing Technologies

“The Germans had limited access to normal oil supplies throughout the war and therefore concentrated on the costly development of synthetic oil production based on the use of large amounts of coal. Their manufacturing industries where highly inefficient and hundreds of different versions of each weapon were produced, with the military’s continuous requests for minor improvements making production in large quantities impossible.

The Allies were masters in standardization, the production of a few sorts of each different weapon, which then allowed simple prefabricated production in greater quantities. This considerable advantage in arms production efficiency was developed by most nations as it became clear that the war would last a long time and the pressure for more arms production became intense. Standardisation drastically increases PCs each turn and prefabrication reduces the PC cost for armoured groups and submarines and convoys.

Tactical Rocketry

“It was a one shot disposable weapon and the key to its success was mass production and distribution on a huge scale”.
“World War II, Infantry Tactics, Company and Battalion” Osprey Publishing

The rocket artillery and infantry anti-tank weapons are a cheap way to give armies extra attack values at zero cost once the technology has been developed. Similarly the other rockets strengthen your aircraft and strategic anti- aircraft guns. These should be developed as soon as possible by all powers interested in the military dimension.


It is often thought that the world lies at the feet of the evil one, and if this is not the case for you, then maybe you were not evil enough. It is also said that the good guys always win in the end; and if this is not the case for you, then maybe you were not good enough.

The moral conflict will enable you to find out what is true.

The moral dimension is available only in the advanced and expansion games.


“That is why we must be willing to do God’s will. If we are not willing, then even when we stare the truth in the face, we will be unable to recognise it. As G. K. Chesterton perceptively noted. “The Christian ideal has not been tried and found wanting; it has been found difficult and left untried.”
“Compelling Evidence” Douglas Jacoby

Moral: Concerning human behaviour, especially the distinction between good and evil, right and wrong. (Bild Dieter Selbstbildnis, Dieter Hess)

Common worldview on morals

“Whenever two people argue about whether something is right or wrong, it shows we know that right or wrong is not subjective. Deep down we all live on the assumption that moral reality is built into the way life is.” “Faith and Doubt” John Ortberg

There are two kinds of people – those who care not about their moral values and those who care and feel confident about their moral standards.

For the first moral values don’t matter – they depend on strength and force, their resources, personal persuasion or lies, treachery and their skills and knowledge – to win. They believe that having high moral standards prevents ‘getting things done’.

The others proud of their moral standards, believe they are the guardians and protectors of righteousness – they will come to save the day. Victory will be theirs because of what they believe.

Because of they are the good ones (relative to their enemies), the end justifies the means and they fall to the temptation to compromise. So long as they are the lesser of the two evils, they can present themselves as the righteous ones.


“Wisdom is the power to see, and the inclination to chose, the best and highest goal, together, with the surest means of attaining it. Wisdom is, in fact the practical side of moral goodness.
“Knowing God” J. I. Packer

One’s moral standing does effect the ultimate outcome, whether in war or in life. The fruits of darkness result in distrust, disunity, leading to hate, rebellion, and ultimately to lower effectiveness – success and victory tends to be short term in the scheme of things. (short term could be one year, 5 years or even 10-20 years in some cases). But the negative consequences eventually catch up with them.

People who conduct themselves with noble moral standards may suffer short-term defeats and sometimes be tempted to give up their adherence to such standards for short-term gains. The fruits of light are trust, unity, leading to love, peace and ultimately to a highly effective team. This takes time to build but the results are often incredible effectiveness over the long term. These are the rewards of the way of righteousness.

Historical References

American bombed Japan, UK bombed France – have their lowered their moral standards? What happened?

Germany success – short term? Problem with production?

Skills, character and strategy

“But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.”
Romans 3:21-23.

The skills required to play the darkness are courage and confidence but unless balanced by patience and skill especially in the military dimension this will prevent the enemy’s decisive defeat. The teaching found in the military dimension must be studied deeply and without mastery of this dimension a decisive military victory will be illusive. Without this complete defeat, the patience, unity and trust of the righteous will allow them finally to challenge the military strength with better technology and economic performance at home.

Playing the role of a nation of darkness you may already be skilled in deceit or just those common white lies. You can decide whether to live up to the role of darkness in diplomacy and the relationships with other players. Some trust and teamwork can be built up with your allies but do you know how? Is it easier for you to put your nations’ interests first even at the expense of the others in the alliance or even potential allies. Because of the immense importance of an alliance with the Soviet Union, you may be challenged to win and keep them using other behaviour. Is win / win negotiation more appropriate to reach this goal? Do you possess the necessary character and skills to do this? Would it actually be better to move up to the twilight as possible in the expansion games?

Playing the role of a nation of shadow or even light you may realise that you do not have the openness or honesty, team and inter personal skills to take advantage of the trust and unity of purpose possible for you and your allies.

Who can master this dimension? When we try to be good, if we are honest we must realise that with strength alone this is not possible. The decisions players make here, if put into practice in the real war, would have earned them all a place in court at the war trials.

The moral conflict in a Moral Conflict game

“Wars of self interest usually end when the winner’s interests are satisfied. Wars of morality are often longer and bloodier: if the enemy is seen as evil, as the infidel, it must be annihilated before the war can end. Wars of morality also churn up uncontrollable emotions.”
“The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene

In the realistic world of a 5 dimensional Moral Conflict game, a nation’s moral conduct dominates it actions in all the other dimensions: military, economic, diplomatic or technological. Hence it is critical to take your nation’s moral conduct level into account in all decision making.

Here is a detailed description of the path of righteousness and what it represented in reality.

A dictatorship or nation of darkness 1 -3

The first commandment, “You shall have no other gods before me.”
Exodus 20:3

This represents a totalitarian state often with a powerful ideology such as communism or Nazism, led by an absolute dictator or leader such as Hitler or Stalin.

  • Righteousness and injustice prevail as dictated by the leader, with freedom of speech and differing ideas violently suppressed. The population and all production, scientific and economic resources are used for the good of the totalitarian state. Any resistance in home or occupied enemy territory is liquidated by any means, including execution, starvation and concentration camps. Religious groups, trade unions, artists and intellectuals were persecuted and thrown into concentration camps or murdered straight away.Higher amounts of land forces are needed to keep control of both home and enemy occupied territories but more production (PCs) can be squeezed out of occupied territories.
  • All important decisions are carried out alone by the dictator or warlord leading the state through a focus on the military dimension.Scorched earth tactics are used in war, causing widespread destruction and loss of industrial and resource production. This may however deter an enemy attacking you knowing that it will take a long time to repair this damage and profit from new territory. Pride prevents the timely use of the retreat options in battle often turning a difficult situation into a major defeat. As an advantage all technological weapons except nerve gas can be both developed and used.
  • The leader’s pride is boosted by a personality cult, which displays him as infallible and almost a God. Extremely evil, dangerous and bad decisions can quickly be made without great consideration for the nation’s population and the moral consequences for humanity as a whole.The moral modifier in the expansion game represents the leader’s uninformed control in military matters, technology development, diplomacy and economics.

A liberal or twilight nation 4 – 6

“Historians are loth to pronounce on moral issues, even where the balance of right and wrong seems clear cut. But can there be any doubt that populations will fight with less effect in the service of an evil cause?”
“Why the Allies Won” Richard Overy

This is a regime ruled by a king, leader and a small group, such as Mussolini offering little representation of their people’s interests. (Bild Der Schatten, Dieter Hess)

  • Some violence and repression but largely within occupied territory. Religious freedom is allowed and limited freedom of speech in home territories. Less occupation forces are needed to control territory but less production (PCs) can be squeezed out of occupied enemy territory.
  • The military dimension is seen as the greatest hope for national success and working with either the powers of darkness or shadow can be attractive. All retreat options are available and closer co-operation with allies and other groups is possible. Special resources and some technology development can be shared. As an advantage all technological weapons except nerve gas can be developed and used.
  • All important decisions are carried out by the king or leader with influence from the few others involved in leading the state. Some other options are considered and opposing views are heard but pride makes it difficult to decide for these. Badly thought-out and hasty decisions are the result, which do not represent the national population’s interests. Failure leaves the leader without ultimate power and coercion, open to overthrow and revolution.

A representative or shadow nation 7 – 10

Sixth commandment, “You shall not murder.” “Exodus 20:13

This is a nation struggling to be faithful to its democratic or religious ideals when faced with the real world’s challenges. The end justifies the means, so it finds ways to justify using many of the same methods as the nations at low levels.

  • The technology and economic dimensions are often their path to success but the dilemma of whether to use strategic bombers or missiles to attack an enemy’s production where civilians are bound to be killed presents itself. These weapons are used and as a deterrent can be further armed with weapons of mass destruction but not used against an enemy.
  • Sharing of resources, armed forces, technological developments and production is possible.
  • All important decisions are carried out by a group leading the state such as Churchill or Roosevelt and their political party. Good decisions can be made representing the national majority but decision making can be too slow and too late and pamper the selfish interests of the nation’s population at the cost of humanity in general. The extremes of evil but also great good are generally avoided.The elected leaders can be peacefully replaced over night; so different options and the public interest is considered before a decision is made

A power such as Germany and Japan will be able to achieve great short term success in the military dimension but if this does not bring complete victory the economic and technological dimensions coupled with the advantages of righteousness will finally weigh heavily against them.

If large amounts of enemy territory can be quickly occupied enough victory points may be acquired to win the game. A move further into darkness improves exploitation of their production. Of highest importance is whether the Soviet Union can be enticed to join the Axis alliance and kept in with them as long as possible. The powers of darkness will never trust each other as lying and cheating will always be possible and at the best the co-operation will never reach that of the Allies. Finally as the powers of darkness near success there is always the problem of keeping this alliance from turning on each other.

The more righteous should wisely use their retreat rules, trading territory of time and patiently pick their battles wisely; husbanding their military strength until their more effective technology development out-performs the powers of darkness. Opposing the diplomatic efforts of the powers of darkness with trade and even sharing economic and technological resources, especially to the Soviet Union, pits their strengths against the Axis powers weaknesses.

The temptation to take short cuts to win quickly will constantly appear, especially the attraction to attack neutrals at lower levels of shadow and the use strategic weapons only possible with a move into the twilight. If both the USA and Empires find themselves too far down the powers of darkness have corrupted the good and make a moral conflict victory.

While in the beginners” and advanced Moral Conflict it is not possible for a national to go up in its moral value, the expansion games (to be introduced in 2014), will make this possible.

Still, all players should carefully weigh the cost of lowering its nations” moral conduct value against the gain it expects to receive.

Recommended literature

“We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.” 2 Peter 1:19

Literatures to help resolving one’s moral conflicts by understanding the spiritual realm blah balh blah

  • When the Game is Over It All Goes Back in the Box – John Ortberg
  • Moral Combat – Michael Burleigh
  • Faith & Doubt – John Ortberg
  • Compelling Evidence – Douglas Jacoby
  • Unshakeable Foundations – Norman Geisler & Peter Bocchino
  • Mere Christianity – C.S. Lewis
  • The Bible


“Do you know Fontanes, what astonishes me most in the world? The inability of force to create anything. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the spirit.”
“Mere Dsicipleship” Lee C. Camp

Affect of force

The critical question in war is knowing when to stop, when to make your exit and come to terms. Stop too soon and you will lose whatever you might have gained by advancing; you allow too little for time the conflict to show you where you are heading. Stop too late and you sacrifice the gains by exhausting yourself, grabbing more than you can handle, creating an angry and vengeful enemy.
“The 33 Strategies of War”, Robert Greene

Military combat destroys the economic base where combat is carried out. Industrial production, communications, mining and agriculture are impacted. Starvation and death can be the fate of the civilian population and eventually the military forces themselves.

The longer and more devastating the combat, the less chance there is of finding peace through diplomacy.


The technological resources of a nation are focussed on making more efficient weapon systems instead of promoting economic development.

Religious groups can be compromised into joining in on their nation’s side. The moral conduct of many nations suffers as they wrestle with the challenges of the moral conflict. Often they arrive at a compromise and the end justifies the means: it’s us or them.

Affect on force

Victory and defeat are what you make of them, it is how you deal with them that matters. Since defeat is inevitable in life, you must master the art of winning well and strategically.
“The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene


Without a strong economic base it is impossible to field strong armed forces.

As Sung Tzu taught, “So an army perishes if it has no equipment, it perishes if it has no food and it perishes if it has no money.” The dependency on economic resources dictates the territory to be conquered and the military campaigns. The acquisition of economic power becomes the goal of military force. An army’s generals can be bribed and paid mercenary forces were common in the past.

The economic dimension is clearly stronger than the military dimension.

However, to acquire these economic resources through war is not the best way. Usually they are destroyed in conflict and the losses in military forces when used for economic purposes would have brought a greater return.


The diplomacy dimension is more powerful and effective. See the example in the diplomacy chapter of how Germany’s trade with the Soviet Union enabled that country to acquire Iran’s oil.


Technology can revolutionise weapons and resource production. A single atom bomb is capable of destroying great armies.

The technology dimension is more powerful.


“I will not subdue the world by military methods, I will heal it by the sympathy of human hearts.” “Jesus the Same” Charles Edward Jefferson

Military force can be used for aggression or deterrence. Moral conduct affects its use and the outcome. Military force in the hands of nations with low moral conduct inevitably breeds war, destruction and large-scale loss of life. The same force in the hands of nations with high moral conduct leads to the peace needed to work towards economic prosperity and a better life for all. The one side uses this force for aggression the other has sufficient to deter the aggressor. Military force is not itself evil or bad, it lies in the hands and heart of the user.

Jesus has been quoted in the rulebooks as saying that we should love our enemies. This high moral standard allows us to avoid much war and destruction. If everybody followed it, we would have no military war.


Affect of economics on other dimensions

“Once upon a time earning a living was the means to an end. The means was earning; the end was living. Over time our relationship with money – earning it, spending it, investing it, owing it, protecting it, worrying about it – has taken over the major part of our lives.”
“Your Money or Your Life” Joe Dominguez and Vicki Robin

Glass ceiling in an expensive shopping centre on the Königsallee in Düsseldorf.

If you focus on the military war for success, you are unable to succeed without economic strength. The Axis alliance’s shortages of oil, iron ore, rubber and many other special resources drastically reduced the effectiveness of their military war.

If a person is able to let go of economic resources and give them away or trade them, they will gain incredible power in terms of diplomacy and personal relationships.

The economic base must be there to develop and manufacture technology.

Affect on economics by other dimensions

“Abundance makes us rich in dreams, for in dreams there are no limits. But it makes us poor in reality. It makes us soft and decadent, bored with what we have and in constant need of shocks to remind us that we are alive. In life you must be a warrior and war requires realism. While others may find beauty in endless dreams, warriors find it in reality, in awareness of what they have.” “The 33 Strategies of War” Robert Greene


The biggest negative influence on the economic dimension is the use of military force. Factories, mines and agriculture are destroyed. The population necessary for its use is killed.


Good diplomatic relations with other nations or people usually have strong positive economic affects.


Prefabrication and standardisation are manufacturing techniques and skills to drastically improve economic production. Technology can be used to produce better products or weapons.


The biggest positive influence on the economic dimension is the use of material for a good cause. Sharing is a powerful way to optimise economic performance.

This is particularly effective with high moral conduct and ineffective with low moral conduct.


Affect of diplomacy

Teams provide multiple perspectives on how to meet a need or reach a goal, thus devising several alternatives for each situation. Individual insight is seldom as broad and deep as a group’s when it takes on a problem.
“The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork” John C. Maxwell

Military goals can be achieved more quickly without losses. Diplomacy is critical to promoting peace since the strengths of trade and sharing can be optimised.

Diplomacy provides the framework for technology development costs, knowledge and skills to be freely shared. This saves enormous amounts of money and time.

Diplomacy greatly heartens and encourages those with a high moral stand but can also give some pride and confidence to those of low moral conduct.

Affect on diplomacy

“You cannot make alliances unless you know the conditions, feelings and plans of opponents.” “The Art of War” Sun Tzu


The military war makes enemies of potential trade partners. The resources they could have supplied in peace must be quickly obtained through military victory or found elsewhere.


Economic and material resources are extremely effective in buying allegiance.


Military success and technologically advanced weapons such as the atom bomb can coerce an enemy into doing what he doesn’t want to and bring a negotiated peace.


The moral conduct is the most important factor impacting on diplomacy.


“When a man begins lying, if you can only keep him lying long enough, he will eventually put you on the track of discovering what the truth is.”
“Jesus the Same” Charles Edward Jefferson

Low moral conduct nations will never win trust. Lies and treachery destroy the relationships necessary to reap the benefits from diplomacy.


“Pride leads to mistreating other people because proud people deem themselves better than others. They see other people as less deserving of respect, comfort or even life”
“Humility” Wayne A. Mack

Pride will prevent nations of darkness and twilight to have close mutually beneficial co-operation, especially when things get difficult.

The other party knows whether you really care. High moral conduct provides, trust, openness and maybe even love. On this foundation of diplomacy, negotiation and co-operation, the other party will find much of they want, thereby generating incredible returns for both sides. The military and economic dimensions cannot provide so cheaply, quickly and generously. Diplomacy is much stronger but it i also extremely difficult and few are able to master it. Many give up and resort to the lower dimensions instead.


Affect of technology

“During the winter of 1941 -2 the German army hoped to make good the collapse of the armoured force by developing new tanks that could both outgun the Soviet T-34, and remain immune to anti-tank fire with greatly strengthened armour. Hitler took a leading role in planning them, but instead of developing a tank that was easy to maintain and to produce in quantity, he demanded large, technically complex tanks of very great weight. The result was the “Tiger” and the “Panther”. Though they could deliver the enhanced firepower, they were slow and unmanoeuvrable a liability on poor ground.
“Why the Allies Won” Richard Overy

Military war is highly dependent on suitable and effective technology. Appointments based on party loyalty instead of competence and Hitler’s meddling in technological development show how Germany quickly lost its technological lead as the war progressed. Without such a lead, either quantity or skill must compensate. The Allies rapidly ramped up production and out-produced all the Axis nations, while learning German Blitzkrieg tactics with armour and aircraft. This was decisive in bringing about Axis defeat.

Affect of technology

“When Hitler insisted on throwing the first six Tigers into battle in the early summer of 1942 the result was a fiasco. On a road fringed by marshland the tanks were ambushed by Soviet troops. The first and last tank, were hit in the poorly protected side and rear, immobilising the remaining four which were destroyed one by one.”
“Why the Allies Won” Richard Overy

This shows that the applicable weather and terrain conditions have to be closely evaluated when developing military technology.

A strong economic base is the basis for successful technological innovation. The great knowledge needed to master this highly complex dimension is rarely to be found in the context of low moral standards. This is reflected in the difficulties when a 20 is rolled for the application development of nation of low moral standing. They are also limited in terms of their capacity to share breakthroughs.


Affect of morals

“It is amazing to see what happens in people’s lives when they shift from seeing the “right way” as something they “should do” to seeing it as the only way they will have life”
“How People Grow”. Dr. Henry Cloud and Dr. John Townsend

The moral way avoids extremes of wealth but also poverty, and it is this that enables man to cope with the temptations of material resources. All personal relationships are defined by the moral conduct of both parties. The moral stance determines whether technology is used for good or evil.

So the moral dimension has the greatest strength and the result of other dimensions is calibrated through morals.

Effect on morals

“People nowadays take time far more seriously than eternity”.
“The Life you’ve Always Wanted” John Ortberg

The first four dimensions have an external and internal effect on a person.


“War is the province of danger and therefore courage is above all things is the first quality of a warrior. Courage is of two kinds, first physical courage or courage in the presence of danger to the person; and next, moral courage or courage before responsibility, whether to be the judgement seat of external authority, or the inner power, the conscience.”
“On War” Carl von Clausewitz


“Even though it may be done quite unconsciously money molds people – in the process of getting it of saving it, of using it, of giving it, of accounting for it. Depending on how it is handled, it provides a blessing or a curse to its possessor; either the person becomes master of money or the money becomes master of the person.”
“Your Money Counts” Howard Dayton

Many have become hard-hearted through the love of money and lead into temptation and moral decay.


A proud person insults and stirs up trouble with others, but a humble person is a peace maker and encourager.”“Humility” Wayne A. Mack

Whether war or peace takes place it is the result of diplomacy. A proud nation will find it hard to avoid war in diplomacy and the result will drastically affect the morals of the nation. War brings extremes and will magnify the moral status of a nation and even an individual character. It will show the heart bringing either the good or the bad out for all to see. Peace will often hide the heart but it will show itself to the decerning person.


Technology today has created great comfort and through this many are living half heatedly with no real goals. No great challenges and no great goals requiring all of their (moral) strength. Separated from each other at a distance we lose interdependence and strive for independence and self sufficiency. Nobody wants to be dependent on those, they deep down don’t really trust.

Moral on itself

“For the entire law is fulfilled in keeping this one command: ”Love your neighbour as yourself.” If you bite and devour each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other.” Galatians 5:14

Moral decisions or moral character function internally. The effect of the other dimensions is reduced as the internal moral character of a person becomes stronger. A strong moral person is almost impossible to find. Someone who will withstand all external forces directed on them. Such a person will have great influence.


The militarily and technologically strong Germany player has the initiative at the beginning and that player’s decisions dominate everybody’s play.

The greatest weakness is the dependency on oil from the Balkans, Soviet Union and its own very expensive synthetic oil factories. Iron ore must be imported from Sweden, Spain and the Soviet Union. When Germany tries to use its armed forces to attack, these countries are often the first choice. Germany must succeed quickly, otherwise these sources could dry up. Although Germany’s strength dominates the first turns, if this is not used wisely, the overwhelming economic strength of the USA supporting Germany’s enemies could eventually wear it down.

The best strategy for Germany is to quickly break the Empires’ hold in the Middle East. Turkey offers a vital land bridge to transport oil back to Europe and should rapidly be taken by diplomacy or invasion. After Turkey, the rest of the Middle East’s oil is waiting to be captured. To achieve this, the Axis should remain at peace with the Soviet Union, tempting them with the offer to carve up the world together with the other Axis nations.

The Germans should also use this time to strengthen themselves by standardising their production and focussing on developing a major technological advantage such as jet engine aircraft, where they already have a lead. Depending on the way they have developed their strength they can invade the British Isles or to risk war with the Soviet Union. Both of these enemies have territory stretching across the world and will probably never be completely defeated. If enough territory is taken from either of these it should be possible to win the game.

Morally, the Germans are leading the pack downwards. This makes it easier to exploit the production in captured territories but reduces the chances of diplomacy, causing problems in the area of technology development, limiting retreat options and increasing losses in the armed forces.

Germany diplomacy by discussion

The Empires

The Empires and dominions are spread thinly across the world.

Initially, defence is the best and concentration of their inadequate forces is vital, especially in the British Isles. When they are secure, the Middle East must be held to keep the Axis away from the oil there. It is relatively easy and quick to fly in aircraft as reinforcements, as long as Gibraltar is held. It is possible to place new armies in South Africa otherwise everything has to be shipped long distance. Each turn, as many new units as possible should be placed on South Africa and moved up to face the Italians in the north.

Without the support of the Soviet Union or a rearmed USA, the Empires must be very careful.

The Empires are tempted to slip morally to be able to use strategic bombing and weaken Germany.

Empires diplomacy by discussion

The Empires are fighting Greater Germany and the Small Allies alone.
“Fateful Choices” Ian Kershaw

The Empires can make peace with the European Axis powers and maintain their Empire and strength. They can decide to resume conflict if the moral level allows the attack of a major power.

The Soviet Union

The alliance which has the militarily and economically powerful Soviet Union on its side has greatly enhanced chances of success.

The Soviet Union should play the alliances off against one another. If it wants to win quickly and easily without great losses it should try to delay any war with the Axis for as long as possible. If it goes well, why not win together as part of the Axis alliance? This depends largely on diplomatic skills and the relationships.

The Soviet Union was morally little different from Germany but has the opportunity to move up one when an Axis power attacks. This gives greater freedom to retreat and reduce military losses.

Soviet Union Diplomacy by discussion

In June 1941 the Soviet Union had a non-aggression pact with the Axis. Actually anything could have happened, and finally Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, bringing Italy and the Balkan nations with them. Japan alone kept the non- aggression pact and uneasily guarded its borders. After the war in Europe was over, the Soviet Union broke their pact with Japan and invaded Manchuria.

Initially the Soviet Union diplomacy remains the same as in the beginners’ game but the economic crisis, with special resources, gives more possibilities.

As part of their non-aggression agreement at the start of the game, the Soviet Union was selling Germany two units of oil and one unit of iron ore each summer turn for three gold units.

The first diplomacy could be to decide whether to continue this or increase the trade agreement.


The USA starts with the smallest armed forces and the lowest production for military forces.

It should develop as much technology (both manufacturing technologies and military) as it can in the first war seasons to make the most armed forces with its meagre military production. This can immediately be shared with the Empires. The Allies must slow and stop the Axis forces before they capture more than half the world’s production. Then time plays against the Axis and the massive USA production will be used militarily, economically, diplomatically, technologically and morally to crush the Axis.

The USA possessed the moral high ground but ultimately overtook the Empires on the way down, so that it could use the Atomic bomb.


Japan has enough oil for only a few turns, as well as a shortage of iron ore.

Oil can be bought from the Soviet Union or easily captured in Burma, Sumatra and Borneo. Iron ore can be captured or bought from the Soviet Union. All the requirements for both can be met by trade with the USA. It would be best to work together with the rest of the Axis to defeat the Soviet Union. However this makes it hard for Japan to quickly acquire the vital oil and brings the Empires and USA into the war against it.

A military war with the USA and Empires can only be avoided by diplomacy. Japan is still at peace with them and should enter the war only after careful consideration. If it remains at peace it can use this vital time to build itself up militarily and economically. A Japanese economic miracle based on increased production and trade for the special resources needed is the best chance to win.

Only at the right moment and a great Axis success in Europe should Japan risk a war. Japan’s small economy cannot replace its losses quickly enough to support a major long term war with the Allies. The Japanese must strike quickly. Once the high tide has been reached the Japanese must hold on and hope that in Europe the other Axis powers will win and eventually reach them. Otherwise the Japanese initial military advantage will bring some expansion but never enough to defeat the Empires and USA alone.

The Japanese had not reached the depths morally and could remain where they were or move further down.

Japanese diplomacy by discussion

After the Pacific War had run its catastrophic course for Japan, the country was able to build and establish unprecedented prosperity on the basis, precisely of Japanese dependence on the United States and successful incorporation into world trade resting on capitalist competition and market economies.
“Fateful Choices” Ian Kershaw

The Japanese are considered part of the Axis alliance but have the chance to decide if and when, they join the military war. Adequate supplies of resources and growth of economic power, ensuring victory can be achieved by peace or war. In the diplomacy phase they can negotiate trade agreements and even an unthinkable withdrawal from China to avert war with the Allies. They can also be involved in the Axis alliance’s diplomacy with the Soviet Union.

The Small Allies

The Small Allies are, as their name suggests, the weakest power.

If Iberia can be won by diplomacy and Germany can initially protect the Small Allies from the Empires, they have potential to be built up into a strong power. If the Germans fight the Soviet Union early in the game the Small Allies and the Japanese usually suffer the most and their potential is very difficult to develop. In the case of a 1938, 1939 or 1940 start, the Small Allies are at peace and should enter the war only after careful consideration. If they remain at peace they can use this vital time to build themselves up militarily and economically. They should only risk war if the time is ripe.

If the Small Allies can take Africa with its special resources, it can probably play a major role. Here the world’s major diamond production is to be found and this would solve the Axis’ medium-term difficulties in obtaining these.

The Small Allies had not reached the depths morally and could remain where they were or move further down.


Please see the bottom of each dimension for recommended literature.  Additional reference on films, music and poems of the WWII era will be forthcoming.

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